Individual Tax Planning

Common Tax Jargon

Common Tax Jargon

Have you ever found yourself baffled by common tax jargon? Adjusted gross income, tax brackets, itemized deductions - these terms can be overwhelming for anyone trying to navigate the complex world of taxes. But fear not, because in today's blog post, we will demystify these terms and provide you with concrete examples to help you better understand and navigate the tax landscape. So, let's dive in and equip ourselves with the knowledge and tools we need to master our finances, lower our taxes, grow our business, and find personal success.

Section 1: Adjusted Gross Income (AGI)

Adjusted Gross Income, or AGI, is a crucial figure used by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to calculate your tax liability accurately. AGI helps determine various tax aspects, such as eligibility for certain deductions and credits. But what exactly is AGI? Let's simplify it with an example:

Suppose you're a self-employed individual who earned a hundred thousand dollars last year. However, you are eligible for deductions related to your business expenses, retirement contributions, and student loan interest, totaling $20,000. In this case, your AGI would be $80,000, which is calculated by subtracting the deductions from your gross income. Understanding and calculating AGI correctly is essential to ensure you take advantage of available deductions and credits.

Section 2: Itemized Deductions

Itemized deductions are specific expenses that taxpayers can deduct from their income, thereby reducing their taxable income. For example, let's say you paid $10,000 in medical expenses, $5,000 in mortgage interest, and $3,000 in charitable contributions throughout the year. These amounts can be itemized and deducted from your income, reducing your taxable income by $18,000. Here's how it adds up:

$10,000 (medical expenses) + $5,000 (mortgage interest) + $3,000 (charitable contributions) = $18,000

Itemized deductions can be beneficial if your total deductions exceed the standard deduction, allowing you to lower your tax liability even further. We'll discuss the standard deduction in more detail later in this post.

Section 3: Tax Brackets

Tax brackets refer to the range of income levels at which different tax rates apply. In the United States, we have a progressive tax system, meaning that as your income increases, so does your tax rate. You pay tax as a percentage of your income in layers, and these layers are called tax brackets. Let's explore what the 2023 single tax brackets look like:

- 10% tax rate: Up to $10,275

- 12% tax rate: $10,276 to $40,175

- 22% tax rate: $41,776 to $89,076

- 24% tax rate: $89,077 to $171,051

- 32% tax rate: $171,052 to $215,591

- 35% tax rate: $215,592 to $539,981

- 37% tax rate: $539,982 and above

It's important to note that when your income jumps to a higher tax bracket, you don't pay the higher rate on your entire income. You only pay the higher rate on the part of the income that's in the new tax bracket. Understanding tax brackets can help you better plan your finances and optimize your tax strategy.

Section 4: Tax Credits

Tax credits are a valuable tool for directly reducing your tax liability. Unlike deductions that reduce your taxable income, tax credits are subtracted directly from the amount you owe in taxes. Let's take the child tax credit as an example:

If you qualify for the child tax credit, which is worth up to $2,000 per child, you can reduce your tax liability by $4,000 if you have two eligible children. Other examples of tax credits include the earned income tax credit for low- to moderate-income individuals and families, and the American opportunity credit for qualified educational expenses. These credits can make a significant difference in lowering your overall tax bill.

Section 5: Tax Shelters

Tax shelters are lawful strategies or investments utilized by individuals or businesses to minimize their tax liability. One commonly known tax shelter is the individual retirement account (IRA). By contributing to an IRA, you can deduct the amount from your taxable income, reducing your tax liability. Let's consider a simple example:

If you contribute $5,000 to your traditional IRA and fall into the 22% tax bracket, you'll save $1,100 in taxes. Essentially, you're able to put $5,000 into your retirement, but it's only costing you $3,900 to do so. It's important to work with a qualified tax professional to ensure you're utilizing tax shelters appropriately and in accordance with federal tax laws.

Section 6: Standard Deduction

The standard deduction is a predetermined dollar amount that reduces your taxable income. It's a fixed amount based on your filing status. For the tax year 2023, the standard deduction amounts are as follows:

- Single filers and those married filing separately: $13,850

- Married filing jointly: $27,700

- Head of household: $20,800

The standard deduction is claimed on your tax returns filed by April 2024. However, it's always crucial to consider your specific situation and consult with a tax professional to determine the best options for you.


Armed with the knowledge and examples provided in this blog post, you can now navigate the world of taxes with confidence. Understanding common tax jargon such as adjusted gross income, itemized deductions, tax brackets, tax credits, tax shelters, and the standard deduction will help you make informed decisions and maximize your financial well-being. Remember, always consult with a qualified tax professional for personalized advice and to ensure compliance with tax laws.

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Ralph Estep, Jr.

Ralph Estep, Jr.

Ralph V. Estep, Jr. is a highly accomplished professional with extensive experience in finance, accounting, technology, and entrepreneurship. As the principal at Saggio Management Group, Inc., he has shown exceptional leadership and expertise in various roles throughout his career.

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